Mon , 18 Feb 2019


                                                                       DRUGS & DOPING


1)    Drugs are the chemical substances that excite a person – mentally or physically
2)    Drugs are defined as any substance or means that improves physical performance through its effects
3)    Drugs are powerful stimulant of the brain & if given in the form of intravenous injection they can produce as ecstatic sensation of both physical and mental power with temporary disappearance of feeling of fatigue and hunger.

Drugs taken by the athlete will help him to run faster, throw farther, jump higher and prolong the time to reach total fatigue. Physiologically drugs increase alertness, reduce sense of fatigue, increases blood pressure and heart rate, elevate blood sugar and increase muscle tension


1)    Alchohol (C2H5OH)  2) Amphetamines  3)  Anabolic steroids  4) Cocaine 5) Caffine  6) Aspertic acid salt
7) Tobacco   8) Barviturates  9) LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)  10) Heroine

Doping may be defined as the use of chemical substances, foreign to the body to improve athletic performance.

Doping is the use of substances or the employment of means in an attempt to augment artificially the performance of an athlete which is illegal in nature, taken in abnormal quantity during either participation or preparation.

It is the injection of either whole blood or packed red blood cells (RBC’s) into the athlete prior to the competition in the hope of increasing the blood volume and its oxygen carrying capacity and thus improving endurance performance

        Blood doping may be the injection of an individual’s own blood which was withdrawn several weeks prior to reinjection. Training continues and this apparently allows time for the body to regenerate new RBC’s in which to restore the normal hemoglobin level. The ergogenic effect from the blood doping is considered to be unethical.

1)    It causes infections to the blood.
2)    It leads to intravascular blood clothing
3)    When attempted by an untrained physician it leads to mismatch blood transfusion

1)    Sports association make various types of spot checks to ensure that their rules are being observed
2)    The testing of urine of winners are required
3)    An updated list of prohibited drugs should be distributed from time to time to all federations, team physicians before the competitions & in the medical centre at the competition site & the drugs are marked with a special color coding
4)    Regular body weight records should be maintained
5)    To make random spot checks on the urine of competitors at unannounced times times during their preparations
6)    The trainer must explain the effects of drugs rationally rather than emotionally. All types of drugs have no place in sports because of immediate and long term harmful effects
7)    To keep a close look and regular checks on the body weight of top athletes, make careful examination of any, who show a surprising gain or loss
8)    All drug addicts should have the knowledge of physiological harmful effects of the drugs on human body

                                                                          FIRST AID


                                                        F – FAST
                                                        I – INVESTIGATION
                                                        R – REST
                                                        S – SYMPATHY
                                                        T – TREATMENT
                                                        A – ARRANGE
                                                        I – IMMEDIATE
                                                        D – DISPOSAL TO HOSPITAL

First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness. It is the first treatment given at the occurance of injury or illness using primary facilities and materials.


The purpose of “First Aid” is to preserve life, assist recovery and prevent aggravation of the condition, until the services of a docter can be obtained or during transport to hospital or to the casualty’s home.


1)    Self Aid - is said to be that in which injured person (casualty) can do for himself.
2)    First Aid - the casualty when he/she is unconscious or unable to move, there help provided to the casualty is known First Aid.


1)    Do first thing first quickly, quietly without panic.
2)    Try to move the casualty as little as possible with gently handling.
3)    Do not attempt too much and keep patience.
4)    Reassure the casualty and those around in order to reduce tension.
5)    Give artificial respiration, if required.
6)    Try to stop if there is any bleeding.
7)    Move the people around the casualty as fresh air is essential.
8)    Do not remove clothes unnecessarily.
9)    Refer the doctor/physician/hospital at the earliest


1)    Resuscitation is a life saving procedure given to the patient when his respiratory and circulatory systems are not functioning.
2)    If the patient is not breathing and his heart is not beating, resuscitation should be attempted.
3)    The procedure must start without delay as because brain can only survive for about three minutes without oxygen.
4)    This procedure should be continued until spontaneous breathing and pulse are restored or the patient is handed over to a qualified