Tue , 22 Jan 2019




DEFINITION - According to Webster's Encyclopedia, "It is the ability of a person to do daily routine work without fatigue; to participate in playful activities and still reserves enough capacity to meet an emergency"

According to David R. Lamb, "Physical fitness is the capacity to meet the present and potential physical challenges of life with success."


  • Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Flexibility (Hip & Trunk)
  • Muscular Strength
  • Body Composition (Ideal body weight)
  • Balance
  • Agility
  • Coordination
  • Power
  • Speed


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY - Body movements produced by muscle action that increase energy.
EXERCISE – Planned, structured, repetitive, systematic and purposeful physical activity.
HEALTH – According to WHO, American College of Sports Medicine laid “Health is a state of complete well being not simply the absence of disease i.e. physically fit, mentally alert, socially and spiritually well.

PHYSICAL FITNESS According to President Council of Physical Fitness laids that Physical fitness is the ability to do daily task with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue and with ample energy to engage in leisure pursuits and to meet emergency situations.
Physical fitness is a physiological state of well being that provides the foundation for the task of daily living, a degree of protection against hypo kinetic diseases and the basis of participation in sports.

 Conditioning is a training schedule which has been prepared scientifically by doing which a player prepares himself physically and mentally for a better performance during competitive meet. Ordinarily its duration is one year. The purpose is to enhance the inherent (motor) qualities of a player which includes endurance, strength, speed, flexibility, agility and will power.

1)    Circuit training
2)    Pressure training
3)    Interval training
4)    Weight training
5)    Isometric training
6)    Fartlek training (speed play)
7)    Grooving the stroke

1)    Teaching means to impart knowledge of the fundamentals of every game.
2)    Mainly it is done by Physical education teacher.
3)    A physical education  teacher must know the fundamentals of as large number of games.
4)    In teaching, a teacher’s job is to equip a player for competitive meets or ordinary match.
5)    Teaching is imparted during physical education period.

1)    It is a preparation of a sportsmen towards training high or higher possible sports performance.
2)    Sports training comes in between Coaching and teaching.
3)    It is attained through the improvement of physical fitness/motor fitness, technical development, tactical efficiency, psychological efficiency, speed, strength, endurance etc.

1)    Coaching may be defined as the process of imparting knowledge to players  through training.
2)    It is a specialized process of training.
3)    A coach has a thorough knowledge of his game. The aim of coaching is to prepare a player / group/ team for superior performance in his game.
4)    Coaching is given by a qualified coach of a particular given game .


A coach has to bear in mind the following  fundamental principles during coaching for a better and positive output. The principles are as follows:-
1)    Coaching should be based on scientific principles
2)    Individual differences
3)    Coaching according to the game
4)     Coaching according to the aim
5)    Coaching according to the standard of players
6)    Knowledge of each aspect of the player
7)    Difference between the new and experienced players
8)    Use of the fundamental teaching methods
9)    Knowledge of the teaching principles
10)    Knowledge of the balanced and proper diet
11)    Close observation of the players
12)    Generalization of the skills
13)    Use of less energy and good results
14)    Coaching venue and literature
15)    One skill at one time
16)    Mistakes to be corrected immediately
17)    Congenial environment
18)    Informing players about their improvement
19)    Planning and effective implementation of training schedules
20)    Deep knowledge and impressive personality
21)    Varieties of training schedules
22)    Maximum use of audio visual aids

1)    Physical fitness
2)    Complete knowledge of the game
3)    Academic qualification
4)    Trained person
5)    Ability to teach
6)    Ability to understand players
7)    Sportsmanship
8)    Moral integrity
9)    Character
10)    Good behavior
11)    Humorous nature
12)    Mental balance
13)    True guide
14)    Impartiality (honesty)
15)    To acknowledge other’s merit
16)    Imagination
17)    Balanced personality
18)    Latest knowledge
19)    Knowledge of sports psychology
20)    Ability of close observation
21)    Ability of test and measurement
22)    Commitment to the profession
23)    Record of vocational experiences
24)    Patience
25)    Self discipline
26)    Tiredless worker
27)    Indignity (unity)
28)    Flexibility in coaching style/system

Officiating means different functions performed by official. All those functions which are performed by an official during the course of conduct of the game are called as officiating. It is done by a qualified referee, judge and umpire.